Glossary

 

Shipping Terms
 



A (Alpha)


A.S. (A.s.)
Alongside
AA
Always afloat
AAAA
Always Afloat, Always Accessible
AALA
American Association for Laboratory Accrediation
AASO
Assosiation of American Ship Owners
AB
Able seamen
AB (ABS)
American Bureau of Shipping - American (US) Ship Classification Society. Under the provisions of the US Load-Line Act - it has the authority to assign load lines to vessels registered in the US and other countries.
Abandoned Well
An oil well where production has ceased.
ABS
American Bureau of Shipping- American classification society.
Accommodation Unit/Floatel
Normally a semisubmersible or jackup (See Jackup), equipped with cabins, catering facilities and office space for up to 800 persons. The installation is normally used for the accommodation and catering for personnel constructing or operating a fixed production platform. An accommodation unit may also be equipped with workshops and/or storage facilities.
ACFN
American Committee for Flags of Necessity
ACGFO
Any Commercial Grade of Fuel Oil
Acid Gas
Gas with pollutants causing a low pH-value. Creates corrosion problems.
Acidizing
Te injection of hydrochloric acid into the production zone in order to stimulate greater yield. The acid corrodes the sedimentary partitions, thereby increasing permeability.
ACOT
Advisory Committee on Offshore Technology
ACP
Area Contingency Plan
ACS
American Chemicals Society
AD
Air Draft - correctly used, air draft refers to the distance from the vessel's waterline to the top of the highest mast in an unladen condition. Important to determine whether the vessel can pass under fixed bridges. (Airdraft is also used to refer to the distance from the vessel's light waterline to the top of the hatch coming. This dimension must be known to determine whether the vessel will fit under the fixed shore loading or discharging appliance.)
ADB
African/Asian Development Bank
ADEC
Alaska Departement of Environmental Conservation
ADR
Alternative Dispute Resolution - a relatively new innovation whose use has increased in the last decade in response to a general rise in litigation in many jurisdictions and the thereby escalating cost associated therewith, as well as the increased dissatisfaction with the legal process itself. The ADR is a tool designed as a supplement to a given judicial system to provide parties of otherwise good and long term working relationship with a cheaper and in most cases less adversial alternative to lengthy court hearings and arbitrations.
Aerated Mud
Drilling mud mixed with oxygen to increase efficiency.
AFRA
Average Freight Rate Assessment - average costs for the freight of oil with tankships. Calculated by the Worldscale Association in London. based on an ongoing registration of all freightrates at particular points in time.
Aframax
American Freight Rate Association - approximately 80,000 - 105,000 dwt - term for a tank ship of standard size.
AFRASEC
Afro-Asian Organization for Economic Cooperation
AFTA
Asean Free Trade Area (See ASEAN).
AG
Arabian Gulf - also called PG - Persian Gulf.
Agent / Ship's Agent
Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading
AGS
Annual General Survey
AH
Antwerp Hambug range
AHT
Anchorhandling Tug - vessel employed in the offshore field moving anchors and performing towing operations.
AHTS
AHT which is also a combined supplyvessel.
AID
Agency for International Development - US organization for civilian aid programmes.
AIMS
American Institute of Merchant Shipping - the American shipowners' association for the major part of the privately owned tonnage.
AIS
Automatic Identification System
ALADI
Latin-American Integration Association (11 members).
ALAMAP
Associacón Latinamericano de Armadores - Latin-American Shipowners' Association (established in March 1963).
ALU-TUCP
Philippine Seafarers' Union, member of TUCP (Trade Union Council of the Philippines).
AMA
Association of Maritime Arbitrators, New York
AMOSUP
Associated Marine Officers' and Seamen's Union of the Philippines - Filipino union for officers and crew.
AMPD
Average Most Probable Discharge
AMR
Amercoat
AMS
Automated Manifest System (For US Departement of Agriculture Entry Processing Procedures for US ports)
AMVER
Automatic Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System - American warning system for international shipping.
ANDES’ Pact
Customs and tariffs union between Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia with common external customs’ tariffs.
Anchor Piling
Mooring point on the sea bed.
Anchorhandling
Tug
AHT - ship carrying out tasks such as the placing or moving of anchors, as well as towing drilling installations and barges etc. May double as a supply vessel and is in such cases termed Anchorhandling Tug/Supply (AHTS).
Annular Blowout Preventer
Safety valve during drilling operations. Consists of rubber gasket stopping the flow of mud outside the drill string.
Annulus
The distance between the drill string and the casing or the wall of the drilling hole.
ANPRM
Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
ANS
Alaskan North Slope (crude oil)
ANSI
American National Standard Institute
AODC
Association of Offshore Diving Contractors
AOSC
Assistant On-Scene Coordinator (U.S. Coast Guard)
AP
All Purposes or Additional Premium
APEC
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (18 members).
API
American Petroleum Institute - Founded in 1919, the first oil trade association to include all branches of the petroleum industry
API GRAVITY
Petroleum industry expression for density of petroleum liquid expressed in API units. - API gravity is obtained by means of simultaneous hydrometer/temperature readings, equated to, and generally expressed at 60ºF. The relative density to API gravity relation is: API gravity at 60ºF = 141.5 divided by relative density 60ºF minus 131.5.
APICOM
Association of Petroleum Industry Cooperative Managers
APS
Arrival Pilot Station - Signifies a location, on arrival at which vessel will deliver on to a time-charter. Of advantage to a ship owner when compared with TIP, which see.
APT
After Peak Tank
AR / ATRS
American Tanker Rate Schedule-Revised - A Standards of reference published by a group of American tanker brokers and expressed in dollars and cents for thousands of possible voyages. Commonly used for U.S. coast wise voyages.
ARA
Antwerpen-Rotterdam-Amsterdam, often used as destination specification.
Arbitration
A method of settling disputes by one or more arbitrators. Quicker and cheaper than taking a case to court.
ARPA
Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
ART
Alternative Response Technology
Articulated Platform/ Oscillating Platform
An offshore structure fastened to the sea bed by means of an articulated hinge, stabilized by buoyancy elements near the surface. Usually used in connection with loading buoys and flare towers.
ASBA
Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A., Inc.), New York
ASEAN
Association of South East Asian Nations - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore.
ASEM
Summit Meeting between Asian and European nations.
ASF
Asian Shipowners' Forum - shipowners' association for East Asia and Oceania.
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASO
Arbeidsgiverforeningen for Skip og Offshorefartoyer - The Employers' Organization for Ships and Offshore Installations (Oslo).
AST
Atlantic Strike Team (U.S. Coast Guard)
ASTF
Alaska Science and Technology Foundation
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
ATDN
Any Time Day or Night
ATDNS/
ATDNSHINC
Any Time Day or Night Shinc
ATRS / AR
See AR above
ATS
All Time Saved
ATSB
All Time Saved Both ends
AUTOMATIC SAMPLER
A device installed in a flow, automatically controlled so as to extract a representative sample of the flow.
AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGE
An instrument capable of indicating the level of product from a location remote to the Manual gauge site
AWES
Association of Western European Shipbuilders
AWO
American Waterways Operators

 

B (Bravo)
B.S.&W.
Bottom Sediment and Water
B/D
Barrels per Day
B/L
Bills of Lading (Blading) - The basic document between a shipper and a carrier and a shipper and a consignee. It represents the contract of carriage and defines the terms and conditions of carriage. It is the final receipt from the carrier for the goods shown on it and for the condition of the goods. It describes the nature, quantity and weight of the cargo carried. It is also the document of title of the goods shown.
Dirty B/L - Bill of Lading with Captain's note of protest as to the condition of the cargo.
B/N
Booking Note
BA
Buenos Aires
BAC
The Bioremediation Action Committee (EPA sub-committee)
BAF
Bunkers Adjustment Factor
Ballast
Sea water taken into a vessel's tanks in order to submerge the vessel to proper trim. Proper trim is necessary in order to safely navigate the vessel in light condition. Ballast can be taken into cargo tanks, double bottoms, fore and aft peak tanks and/or segregated ballast tanks (SBT)
BAP
Best Available Protection
Bareboat
The hiring or leasing of a vessel from one company to another (the charterer), which provides crew, bunkers, stores, etc. and pays all operating costs.
Bareboat Charter-Party (Demise C/P)
Contract for the hire of an empty ship. All operating costs are covered by the charterer.
Barrel
Measure for oil. There are 7.1 barrels of oil in one ton. Each barrel is approximately 159 litres. Many abbreviations: b, bbl, bar. Sometimes written with capital letters. Barrels per day (Bd or b/d) specifies the production rate per day.
BB
Bahia Blanca ; Ballast Bonus - A lump sum amount paid to a ship owner, usually as a reward (a bonus) for positioning the vessel at a certain place as a prerequisite for her delivery on to time-charter - e.g.: for a ship ex-Mediterranean Sea, "delivering United States Gulf for a time-charter trip to the Far East at US$ 5,000 daily, plus a ballast bonus of US$ 100,000". Occasionally paid as a reward for accepting redelivery from time-charter in an unfavorable position. A Ballast Bonus may be nett (i.e. free of address commissions and brokerages) or gross (i.e.: subject to deduction of brokerage and address commission). ; Below Bridges: - indicates agreement for a vessel to proceed to that section of a port or a river/canal that is "below bridges" - in other words below the place(s) where height restrictions would prevent a vessel navigating beneath certain overhead obstructions. - e.g.: "Vessel to discharge at one safe berth River Thames, Below Bridges".
BBB
Before Breaking Bulk - freight to be paid, i.e. the money deposited into the shipping company's account, prior to discharging.
BCH Code
International code (IMO) for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk
BCM
Distance from Bow to Center of Cargo Manifolds
BD
Bar draft ; Bundle
BDI
Both Dates Inclusive
BEI
Banque Europenne d'Investissement - The European Investment Bank.
Bell Diving
Carrying out diving within a diving vessel, shaped like a bell.
Benchmarking
To compare someone or something with the best that can be achieved within a specified field.
BENDS
Both Ends
Benelux
Belgium, Netherland, Luxembourg
BFI
Baltic Freight Index - an index for bulk freight rates.
BGCP
Berth Grain Charter Party
BH
Bordeaux Hamburg Range
BHP
Brake Horse Power
BIAC
Business and Industry Advisory Committee - OECD's advisory committee. Opposite to TUAC.
BICC
Bureau International des Chambres de Commerce - International information bureau for Chambers of Commerce.
BIFA
British International Freight Association
BIFFEX
Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange (London) - an exchange for the buying and selling of futures, based on the BFI.
BIFFEX
Baltic International Freight Futures Market
BILGE
The lower internal part of the hull where the vertical sides meet the bottom. This term also applies to both the inside and the outside of the hull. The internal space can be the lower part of a ship's hold or the engine room and serves as a drainage area where accumulated water can run into and be pumped from.
Bill of Lading (B/L)
Negotiable document issued by shipowner to shipper of goods. Contains terms and conditions of the contract.
BIMCO
The Baltic and International Maritime Council (Copenhagen)
BIMCO
The Baltic and International Maritime Council, Copenhagen
BIS
Bank for International Settlements (Basel)
BISCO
British Iron and Steel Corporation
Bit
Drill bit.
BITT
Cast steel heads serving as posts to which mooring lines and cables are secured on ships
BLF
Bow Loading Facilities
Block
Denotes an area awarded for test drilling or production. Block sizes may vary.
Blowout
Uncontrolled blow out of oil or gas due to excessive pressure in the reservoir.
Blowout Preventer
Also called "Christmas Tree", a safety valve placed on the well head.
BLT
Built
BMIN
Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation
BMLA
British Maritime Law Association
BNA
British North America
BO
Best Offer
BOA
Basic Ordering Agreement
BOP
Abbreviation for Blowout Preventer.
BOSVA
British Offshore Supply Ships Association
BOTB
British Overseas Trade Board (London)
BOW
The forward most part of a vessel. This area usually houses gear lockers and is the end where anchors and mooring equipment are located.
Box
Everyday term for container.
Break-Bulk Cargo
Goods shipped loose in the vessel's hold and not in container.
BRM
Bridge Resource Management
BROA
British Rigowners' Association
BS (B/S)
Bunker surcharge
BSC
British Shippers Council
BSI
British Standards Institution
BT
Berth Terms
BTCS
Butterworth Tank Cleaning System

A mechanical device used for the purpose of cleaning oil tanks by means of high pressure jets of hot water. The apparatus basically consists of double opposed nozzles which rotate slowly bout their horizontal and vertical axis and project two streams of water through all possible angles against all inside surfaces of the space being cleaned. The tank washing machines can deliver sprays of water at various temperatures and pressures which are dictated by the type of cargoes carried and the reasons for cleaning (Quick bottom wash through gas-freeing and tank entry for hot work).
Bulk ship (bulk carrier)
Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways.
Bulkcargo
Homogeneous dry cargo (not packaged), e.g. coal, grain, iron ore, etc.
Bulk-oil carrier
Multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil).
Bumber Sub
A tool, appr. 20 metres long, allowing a certain amount of vertical movement.
Bunkers
Ship's fuel. To take on fuel, is called bunkering.
Bury Barge
Vessel especially equipped to bury oil and gas pipelines on the sea bed.
BV
Bureau Veritas - French classification society.

 

C (Charlie)


C&E
Customs and Excise - British Department for Tariffs and Customs.
C&F
Cost and Freight - Goods are to be sold on the basis that the seller arranges their seaborne transportation and delivery to the buyer.
C.I.S.
Confederation of Independent States (former Soviet Union - see also FSU)
C/O/H
Cuba / Orinoco / Haiti
CA
Central America
CAACE
Comit des Associations d'Armateurs de la Communaut Europenne (Brussels) - organization for shipping companies from the EU.
CABA
Containing Air Breathing Apparatus
CABAF
Currency And Bunker Adjustment Factor
Cabotage
Coastal trade, i.e. the movement of goods by ship between ports on the same coast or between ports within the same country.
CACM
Central American Common Market
CAD
Cash Against Documents
CAF
Currency Adjustment Factor
CAJEA
Council of All Japanese Exporters' Association
Camber
The arching of the deck upward measured at the centerline in inches per foot beam.
CAP
Condition Assessment Programme - inspection of a vessel to determine its technical condition.
Capesize
Vessel which is too large to navigate the Suez Canal to and from the Arabian Gulf, therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape of Good Hope - approximately 80,000 - 175,000 dwt.
Caping
Routing a vessel around the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
Capital intensive tonnage
Vessel demanding relatively large capital investments, e.g. cruiseships, gas- and chemical tankers, etc.
CARIBS
Caribbean Sea
CARICOM
Caribbean Community.
CAS
Collision Avoidance System - Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in USA inland navigable waterways.
Casing
Pipe with thick walls placed in the drill hole and cemented in place. Prevents the hole from caving in.
CASO
Council of American- flag Ship Operators (eight liner companies which left the AIMS).
Catwalk
A raised bridge running fore and aft from the Midship House, also called "walkway". It affords safe passage over the pipe lines and other deck obstructions.
Cave-in
The walls of the drill hole disintegrating and filling up the hole.
CBA
Collective Bargaining Agreement (tariff agreement) - CBA for Filipino seamen between AMOSUP and ASO is an example. The term is used for any kind of tariff agreement, both for NIS-ships and foreign flagged ships.
CBFS
Carbon Black Feed Stock
CBM
Conventional Buoy Mooring
CBR
Commodity Box Rate
CBT
Clean Ballast Tanks
CCA
Chemical Carriers Association
CCAF
Comité des Armateurs de France - the French shipowners' association.
CCC
Customs Co-operation Council - forum for international cooperation between customs authorities, attempting to create harmony and uniformity of approach.
CCGD8
Commander Coast Guard District Eight
CCR
Cargo Control Room
CCS
China Classification Society
CCW
Clean Coastal Waters (Long Beach CA cooperative)
CD
Customary Dispatch; Chart Datum - a water level calculated on the lowest tide that can conceivably occur, and used as a basis for chart measurements. Such low tide is known also as the Lowest Astronomic Tide (LAT), and presupposes that at the very worst, there would always be that depth of available water at that particular spot.
CDS
Chemical Data Sheet
CE
Conseil de l'Europe (Strasbourg)
CEC
Certificate of Equivalent Competency
CEFOR
Maritime insurers central association.
Cellar Deck
The level beneath Rotary Table on a rig. On a jack-up this means the well-head and BOP. On a floating rig, it is the deck from which the guidelines are controlled. May also have a Marine Riser.
CEMT
Conference Europeenne des Ministres des Transports - OECD-affiliated organization for dealing with transportation problems on rails, roads and inland waterways.
CEN
European Standardization Organization
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation
CENSA
Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners' Associations (London).
CENSA
Council of European and Japanese (Nipponese) National Shipowners' Association
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (U.S.)
CES
Customs Exam Station(U.S. Customs designation for office granting import licence on USDA approved cargoes)
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations (U.S.)
CFS
Container Freight Station ; Cubic Feet per Second
CFT (CuFt)
Cubic Feet
CGT
Colliery Guarantee Terms - the ship is to be loaded in accordance with the terms of the colliery (coal mine) guarantee, which is a contract between the colliery and the charterers - occasionally between the colliery and the ship owner - describing applicable laytime, excepted periods, holiday and demurrage
Charterer
Cargo owner or another person/company who hires a ship.
Chartering
To hire a ship to carry goods/cargo.
Chartering agent
Shipbroker acting on behalf of charterer in negotiations leading to the chartering of a ship.
Charter-Party (C/P)
Contract for the hire of a ship or space in a ship ; Transport contract between shipowner and shipper of goods.
Chemical tanker
Special tanker built for the transportation of bulk chemicals. Newer tonnage is equipped with stainless steel tanks. Ships may carry many different cargoes simultaneously, because each tank has its own pump and pipeline system for loading and unloading.
CHOPT
Charterer's Option - May refer, for example, to Charterer's option to discharge at a number of ports - e.g.: "up to three ports Taiwan, in Charterer's Option". Or perhaps relative to a cargo size margin - e.g.: "10,000 tonnes, 5 per cent more or less chopt". (See MOLCO).
CIC
Clean Island Council (Hawaiian cooperative)
CIF
Cost, Insurance, Freight. Designates that the cargo is carried free of charge for the buyer; seller pays all transportation costs.
CIFC
Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission
CIFFO
Cost, Insurance and Freight, Free Out
CIMA
Channel Industries Mutual Aid Association
CIP
Calling-In-Point
CIRCAC
Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council
CIS
Commonwealth of Independant States
CISPRI
Cook Inlet Spill Prevention, Inc. (Alaskan cooperative)
Civil Liability Convention
CLC - see Oil spill compensation.
CKD
Completely Knocked Down - Said of cargo, normally of cars, shipped in pieces and cased, to be assembled at destination.
Classification society
Organization which carries out surveys of newbuildings and at regular intervals when in commission, sets and maintains quality standards for ships and their equipment. Acts on behalf of the flag state's maritime authorities.
CLC
Civil Liability Convention of 1969.
CLINGAGE
The residue that adheres to the inner surface and structure of a container, such as a tank after having been emptied
CLS
Closed Loading System
CMI
Comite Maritime International - the international association for maritime law.
COA
Contract of Affreightment - quantity contract: An agreement between shipowner and shipper concerning the freight of a defined amount of cargo. The shipowner chooses ship.
Coating
Paint (corrosion protection)
COE
Corps Of Engineers
COFFERDAM
The narrow, empty space between two adjacent watertight or oil-tight compartments. This space is designed to isolate the two compartments from each other and/or provide additional buoyancy. It prevents any liquid contents of one compartment from entering the other in the event of a bulkhead failure. In oil tankers, cargo spaces are usually isolated from the rest of the ship by cofferdams fitted at both ends of the tank body.
COFR
Certificate of Financial Responsibility - regarding the transport of oil to USA. Vessels must have a certificate guaranteeing the payment of up to USD 1,500 per dwt. in case of oil spills.
COFR
Certificate Of Financial Responsibility
COGSA
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (USA).
Collar
A thick piece of pipe closest to the bit.
Combination carrier
Ships for the transportation of both liquid and dry bulkcargoes. There are two main types: Ore carriers and bulk-tank-ships.
Commission
Shipbroker's remuneration, normally 1.25 per cent of gross freight. Calculated also for sales and purchases of vessels at one per cent of purchase price.
Commission
Shipbroker's fee - often 1,25% of the gross freight rate. In the case of a purchase/sale, often 1% of the purchase sum.
Completion
Making the hole ready for production.
Conductor Pipe
Casing with large diametre - normally the first first lining or guide pipe fitted during the drilling operation.
Container vessel
Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with special cranes and are then called lift on-lift off-ships (see special entry). Container ships are generally fast, operating regular sailing schedules (lines).
Contract of Affreightment, c.o.a.
Contract for the hire of a ship. The shipowner undertakes the transport of certain amounts of goods for one or several voyages.
EUROS
Planned ship register in the EU.
EXIMBANK
Export-Import Bank of the United States to promote American exports.
Exploration Well
Hole drilled during the search for new oil reserves.

 

F (Foxtrot)


FACS
Federation of American Controlled Shipping - organization for US companies with ships under FOC, mainly the Liberian.
FAO
UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome)
FASA
Federation of Asian Shipowners' Associations
Feeder Vessel
A short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep sea vessels.
FENSO
Federation of Norwegian Ships Officers organizations (NMB in Norwegian)
FEU
Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (same as two TEU).
FIATA
Federation Internationale des Associations de Transifaires et Assimiles (Zurich) - International association of forwarding agents.
FIO
Free in and Out - charterer pays for loading/discharging.
Fish - object
A fragment of a drill bit, broken drill pipe, or other object lodged at the bottom of the drilling hole, preventing continued drilling.
Fishing
The work of removing a Fish.
Fixture
Successful conclusion of negotiations between shipowner and charterer, normally with the aid of a shipbroker.
Flag discrimination
National legislation reserving cargo for own ships.
Flag of convenience (FOC)
Term used by labor organizations about countries allowing unlimited registration of foreign-owned ships in order to achieve low wage levels and low or no taxation payable to the flag state. Some FOC- flag states had previously very lax control routines, or no control at all, concerning the vessels' technical standard and their seaworthiness.
Flaring
The burning of non-commercial oil and gas on the production platform or vessel.
Flexible Joint - or Ball-joint
The bottom part of the Marine Riser construction, utilized during drilling from floating rig or vessel. Allows a certain angle deviation when the vessel or rig is positioned.
Flo-flo-ship
Special ship which may be submerged to allow cargo to be floated on or off, i.e. jack-up platforms which may be carried "piggy-back"-fashion on a flo-flo-ship.
Flush Phase
The initial production phase.
FMC
Federal Maritime Commission - American independant control authority regulating liner services to the USA.
FOB
Free on Board - seller is responsible for delivering cargo to the port, paying also for the loading.
FOC
Flag of Convenience
FONASABA
Federation of National Associations of Shipbrokers and Agents
Force Majeure
A clause limiting responsibility for charterer, shipper or receiver of cargo.
FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Unit
FR
Finlands Rederifrening - the Finnish Shipowners' Association.
FRB
Fast Rescue Boat
Free pratique
Ship inspected and cleared by the health authorities of a country.
FSO
Floating storage and offloading unit
FSU
Floating storage unit
Fund Convention
See Oil spill compensation.

 
 

G (Golf)


Gas Lift
The technique of mixing gas into the oil flow in order to enhance the flow.
Gas Oil Ratio
The ratio between the produced gas in cubic feet, and the oil measured in barrels.
Gas Re-Injection
Secondary Recovery Technique with the re-injection of "dried" and condensate-free gas to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Gas tanker
Special ship for the transportation of condensed (liquid) gases. The most important cargoes are: -LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane). -LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (propane, butane). -Ammonia. -Ethylene. On board, gases are kept liquid with highly effective insulation (thermos bottle-principle), by high pressure or by low temperature. LNG-ships must be able to carry cargoes with temperatures as low as -163°C.
Gas Well
The discovery of hydrocarbons with a high Gas Oil Ratio.
GATS
General Agreement on Trade in Services - part of GATT - concerns trading in services, incl. shipping.
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Geneva).
GBS
Gravity Base Structure